In terms of the latter aspect, the existing pattern of globalization is not an inevitable trend – it is at least in part the product of policy choices. Feminists argue that women’s lack of political influence at the global level has not been compensated for by their increased influence in national politics because globalization has undermined national sovereignty, especially in poor nations. Structural adjustment policies require debtor nations to implement specific domestic policies that disproportionately harm women, such as austerity measures, despite strong local opposition. For instance, Wilcox argues that transnational injustices generate strong moral claims to admission for certain groups of prospective migrants. Her second argument maintains that a commitment to relational egalitarianism entails rejecting immigration restrictions that contribute to oppressive transnational structural relations.
It gained some credence as an economic model when the young Soviet Union in effect shut itself off from world trade, and the nationalist impulse towards self-sufficiency appealed to Hitler. It also flourished in the post-war world, especially in Africa, though the creed of globalisation has left few examples outside North Korea. Dominant global brands – globalisation might stifle competition if global businesses with dominant brands and superior technologies take charge of key markets be it telecommunications, motor vehicles and so on. The gains from globalisation problems also pose an important issue about not just distribution of gains among countries, but its disposal among group within nations as well as. Discussion, deliberations, decisions and design by all the concerned decision-makers is required. The globalization of homogenous culture leaves little room for indigenous cultures to nourish healthily.
Paul Krugman, who would win the Nobel prize in 2008 for his earlier work in trade theory and economic geography, privately warned Rodrik that his work would give “ammunition to the barbarians”. But the social cost, in Rodrik’s dissenting view, was high – and consistently underestimated by economists. He noted that since the 1970s, lower-skilled European and American workers had endured a major fall in the real value of their wages, which dropped by more than 20%. Workers were suffering more spells of unemployment, more volatility in the hours they were expected to work. Rodrik pointed to a series of dramatic recent events that challenged the idea that growing free trade would be peacefully accepted. In 1995, France had adopted a programme of fiscal austerity in order to prepare for entry into the eurozone; trade unions responded with the largest wave of strikes since 1968.
These transnational networks, sometimes referred to as “global civil society,” connect millions of people around the world based on shared political commitments. Consequently, some feminist philosophers believe that political “globalization from below” provides women and other vulnerable people with an effective means for resisting the inequalities created by economic globalization. For instance, some feminists argue that globalization has created new transnational public spheres in which political opinion can be marshaled to hold leaders democratically accountable . First, feminist approaches to globalization seek to provide frameworks for understanding the gender injustices associated with globalization. Rather than developing all-encompassing ideal theories of global justice, however, feminist philosophers tend to adopt the non-ideal theoretical perspectives, which focus on specific, concrete issues. Early feminist analyses focused on issues that were widely believed to be of particular importance to women around the world, such as domestic violence, workplace discrimination, and human rights violations against women.
The latter, shifted at the click of a mouse, can stampede around the globe in herdlike movements, causing massive damage to fragile economies. Following speculators’ run on the Thai currency, the baht, the poverty rate in rural Thailand jumped 50 percent in just one year. In Indonesia, a mass withdrawal of short-term capital caused real wages in manufacturing to drop 44 percent. Many economists now see a need for some form of control over short-term capital flows, particularly if domestic financial institutions and banking standards are weak.
It helps prevent war crimes and polices bad actors on the international stage. It can also help speed up other forms of globalization, like economic globalization, because standardized rules around food and trade standards makes it easier for companies to sell their goods overseas. In addition to analyzing the gendered dimensions of globalization, feminist political philosophers discuss specific issues that have been shaped by it.
- But today if I were to picket globalization, I would protest other inequities.
- Lower socio-economic class is defined in the study as people who live in three-room or smaller Housing Board flats, while those with an education level of secondary school or below are considered less educated.
- To protect the sanctity of the standard under conditions of stress, central bankers across the Europe and the US tightened access to credit and deflated prices.
- While infections began in early March in the western states of Washington and California, they spread rapidly throughout the US and by mid-May, the main outbreaks in the country were all located within the parallelogram.
- But the gold standard could not survive the first world war and the Great Depression.
- Arguments against the global justice movement rested on the idea that the ultimate benefits of a more open and integrated economy would outweigh the downsides.
Many people think we shouldn’t interfere in the decisions of other nations. Another criticism is that it led to the spread of the political ideology of neoliberalism that increases the gap between the rich and the poor. One of the biggest positives of political globalization is that it creates international rule of law.
The population concentration in big cities has provoked an even more intensive agglomeration of social and economic activities in 3C environments, driving urban development. But, at the same time, the agglomeration of such urban activities directly backfired as the source of the self-propagating spread of COVID-19. Urbanisation and globalisation represent civilisational progress and they are highly intertwined with the decrease in the cost of moving people, goods, money, information, reducing transportation costs more broadly. They also allowed for the development of the ‘knowledge creation society’ of today, which is centred around global metropolises.
It provides several facilities to financially oppressed people, including food stamps, provisions, healthcare, and housing. It is believed that a new virus can spread in less than 14 days all over the world, given the current situation of open global accesses. Health conditions become more communicable due to increased contact and traveling. According to the United Nations Development Program, 86% of world resources are consumed by G-20 countries, whereas 80% of the world consumes only 14% of the wealth.
In the global North, the pressure on companies to “outsource” jobs to countries where labor is cheaper and working conditions are less regulated has meant that many of the workers who once relied on well-paying manufacturing jobs are now unable to make a living. These jobs have largely been replaced by contingent and part-time service-sector jobs, which tend to be poorly paid and lack health and retirement benefits. The corresponding reduction in real wages has had a disproportionate effect on women, and especially women of color, who hold a higher share of service-sector jobs . Theoretically, ethics of care feminists aim to provide a systematic critique of neoliberal assumptions and develop moral ideals capable of guiding more just forms of globalization. These assumptions lead neoliberalism to prioritize economic growth, efficiency, and profit making over other values, such as equality, human rights, and care. In their view, human beings are fundamentally relational and interdependent; individuals are defined, indeed constituted, by their caring relationships.